On June 29, 2021 TEMPORARY GUIDELINES FOR VACCINATION OF ADULT POPULATION AGAINST COVID-19 were published.
In the Russian Federation, the following vaccines are registered for the specific prevention of COVID-19 in adults:
• combined vector vaccine (“Gam-COVID-Vac”), registration date 11/08/2020;
• combined vector vaccine (“Gam-COVID-Vac-Lio”), registration date 25/08/2020,
• peptide antigen vaccine (“EpiVacCorona”), registration date 13/10/2020
• inactivated whole-virion concentrated purified coronavirus vaccine (“CoviVac”), registration date 19/02/2021.
• vaccine for the COVID-19 prevention (“Sputnik Light”), registration date 06/05/2021
Taking into account the recommendations of the World Health Organization, before reaching the level of collective immunity of the population, it is necessary to carry out vaccination against the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 for epidemic indications 6 months after the illness (including in previously vaccinated persons) or 6 months after the previous primary vaccination (“emergency” vaccination).
Taking into account the unfavorable epidemic situation in the Russian Federation, the “emergency” vaccination is currently being carried out up to the achievement of the herd immunity level (at least 60% of the adult population).
According to the international and Russian studies, a stable humoral and cellular immune response in persons who have recovered from a new coronavirus infection lasts for 6 months after the infection, with its gradual extinction by 9-12 months. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the “new” mutations of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which may cause an infection process in those exposed to the virus in the past due to the partial “escape” of the strain from the previously formed humoral response, carry out the vaccination against the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 without the need to study and take into account data on humoral immunity.
The currently available test systems for determining cellular immunity cannot be widely used due to the lack of reliable data on the interpretation of the research results (duration of protection, its severity (protectiveness) and the degree of resistance of the immune system to the response to virus mutations). In addition, in order to detect the level of cellular immunity, it is necessary to perform tests immediately after blood sampling and only within a short (about 30 days) interval after vaccination or past infection. In this regard, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, it is important to be vaccinated in a timely manner, regardless of the presence and amount of antibodies.
According to the World Health Organization recommendations, the COVID-19 vaccine cannot give a positive PCR or laboratory antigen test result. The vaccine does not form an active disease in people, but creates an immune response.
Although the COVID-19 vaccine protects people from serious illness and death, it is still not known to what extent it protects against contracting the virus and prevents its transmission to others. In order to protect others and yourself, it is necessary to follow sanitary measures, including keeping distance and using masks, especially in closed, crowded or poorly ventilated areas.
Vaccination and re-vaccination against the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 can be carried out with any vaccine registered in the prescribed manner, in accordance with the instructions for medical use of the drug.
If during the initial vaccination serious adverse events are detected in a patient, the vaccine may be replaced with another one if available, at the patient request and unless otherwise contraindicated.
If immediately after the vaccination (after the illness), the citizen independently underwent an antibody test, according to the results of which it was revealed that the citizen antibodies were not detected, it is necessary to get vaccinated again in 6 months (with a possible replacement of the vaccine preparation). If, after the repeated vaccination, antibodies are also not detected, examine the patient in detail for the presence of immunodeficiency.
Contraindications for use are:
– hypersensitivity to any component of a vaccine or a vaccine containing similar components;
– a history of severe allergic reactions;
– acute infectious and non-infectious diseases, exacerbation of chronic diseases – vaccination is carried out 2-4 weeks after recovery or remission;
– for mild ARVI, acute infectious diseases of the gastrointestinal tract – vaccination is carried out after the temperature has returned to normal;
– pregnancy and lactation;
– age up to 18 years (due to the lack of data on efficacy and safety);
– severe post-vaccination complications (anaphylactic shock, severe generalized allergic reactions, convulsive syndrome, temperature above 40 ° C, etc.) after the first component of the vaccine.
For “EpiVacCorona” – hypersensitivity to the components of the drug (aluminum hydroxide and other
in chronic liver and kidney diseases, endocrine diseases (severe thyroid dysfunction and diabetes mellitus in the stage of decompensation), severe diseases of the hematopoietic system, epilepsy and other diseases of the central nervous system, acute coronary syndrome and acute cerebrovascular accident, myocarditis, endocarditis, pericarditis.
Vaccination may pose a risk to the following groups of patients:
– with autoimmune diseases (stimulation of the immune system may lead to an exacerbation of the disease, especially patients with autoimmune pathology, which tends to develop severe and life-threatening conditions should be treated with caution);
– with malignant tumors
Special instructions: a sufficient immune response may not develop in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy and patients with immunodeficiency. Therefore, taking drugs that suppress the function of the immune system is contraindicated for at least 1 month before and after the vaccination due to the risk of reduced immunogenicity.
The memo was compiled on the basis of the temporary guidelines “PROCEDURE FOR VACCINATION OF THE ADULT POPULATION AGAINST COVID-19” of the Federal Remote Advisory Center for Vaccination against the new coronavirus infection COVID-19 (Federal State Budgetary Institution “National Medical Research Center for Therapy and Preventive Medicine” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation) jointly with the Federal Service for Surveillance in Healthcare, State Atomic Energy Corporation “Rosatom”.